Dr Philip J Carter

University of California, Davis



Colliding in the Shadows of Giants:
Planetesimal collisions during the growth and migration of gas giants


Philip J Carter and Sarah T Stewart
PSJ (2020), in press
http://arxiv.org/abs/2008.05549

Below are animations from the paper.
Data from the article are available from dataverse.
Philip J Carter

Figure 2: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example in-situ growth simulation with a 100 kyr growth timescale and HG gas disk (growthis1e5_100k_hg1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 38 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure 3: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example migration simulation with a 100 kyr migration timescale and HG gas disk (mig10in1e5_100k_hg1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; Jupiter and Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 25 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure 4: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example Grand Tack simulation with a 50 kyr evolution timescale and HG gas disk (GT15gm5e4_50k_hg1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 50 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure 10: Eccentricity (top) and inclination (bottom) distributions for example growth (left, growthis1e5_100k_1) and migration (right, mig10in1e5_100k_1) simulations with 100 kyr growth/migration timescales and MMSN gas disks. Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of heliocentric distance, Jupiter and Saturn are shown as grey circles. The bodies are shown with partial transparency to highlight densely populated regions. Scattered planetesimals with high eccentricities also have large inclinations. Planetesimals excited by mean motion resonances, on the other hand, retain low inclinations. The high eccentricity (>~0.1) planetesimals in the growth simulation (mostly orange and pink) also tend to have high inclinations (>~2), particularly interior to the orbits of the giant planets. In the migration simulations this is also true for the scattered, very high eccentricity planetesimals (mostly purple), but the densely populated resonant walls (orange and pink) retain low inclinations despite their high eccentricities. The duration of the video is 25 seconds.
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Figure A1: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example control (no growth) simulation (nogrow5e450k\_hg1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 33 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure A2: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example in-situ growth simulation with a 50 kyr growth timescale and MMSN gas disk (growthis5e4_100k_1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 33 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure A3: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example migration simulation with a 200 kyr migration timescale and MMSN gas disk (mig10in2e5_100k_1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; Jupiter and Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 38 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure A4: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example Grand Tack simulation with a 50 kyr evolution timescale and MMSN gas disk (GT15gm5e4_100k_1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 40 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"


Figure A5: Planetesimal disk eccentricity and inclination evolution and impact velocities during an example Grand Tack simulation with the tack at 2 au, a 100 kyr evolution timescale and HG gas disk (GT20gm1e5_50k_hg1). Planetesimals are colored according to their average composition as a function of initial heliocentric distance of constituent material; (proto-)Jupiter and (proto-)Saturn are shown as grey circles. Body sizes are proportional to their mass. The light grey band indicates the present-day asteroid belt region. The duration of the video is 50 seconds.
Download Video: "mp4"